Information Sosiety

Published since 1989

ISSN 16061330 (printed version) ISSN 1605-9921 (electronic version)

 

Information Society, 2019, Issues 4-5

Keywords and Abstracts

Folk Epistemology as a Program for Knowledge Acceptance Mechanisms Studies
GOLUBINSKAYA Anastasia Valeryevna

Abstract: The article presents the result of the folk epistemology analysis regarded as a direction of contemporary research in the field of human cognitive activity as well as goal setting of a folk epistemological research. On the example of several cases drawn from scientific and historical literature, the hypothesis is put forward that the work of non-expert consciousness with scientific knowledge is not always amenable to explanation by the mechanisms of the theory of scientific knowledge: the latter ignores the inherent social and mental aspects of the knowledge acceptance. The article shows that folk-epistemological perspective in the information society allows detecting value shifts from the truth and validity of knowledge to the need for knowledge, cognitive comfort and accessibility.

Keywords: folk epistemology, epistemic behavior, knowledge acceptance, knowledge comfort, epistemic comfort, information society, interpretation market.

Innovative Startups at the First Three Years on the Market: a Way to Sustainable Development
TSAPLIN Evgeny Vladimirovich, KOSOVA Olga Andreevna

Abstract: The article raises questions of young innovative companies’ survival at the early stages of their development, discusses the international research experience of startups business success and failure, and also presents results of qualitative multiple case study. As the objects of study, the authors have chosen startups that completed an acceleration program from the Internet Initiatives Development Fund and have successfully been staying in business during three years from company formation. An analysis of the experience of specific enterprises made it possible to identify the skills and strategies used by the owners of IT startups in the first three years, and evaluate their contribution to the sustainable development of companies.

Keywords: startup, business accelerator, product market-entry strategy, business planning, entrepreneurial skills, case study.

An Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding a Changing World
VERSHINSKAYA Olga Nikolaevna, GALYUZHIN Alexey Yuryevich

Abstract: The subject area of ??modern economic science does not include many subjects that are traditionally underestimated by professional economists, and thus have come under the jurisdiction of other sciences: philosophy, psychology, sociology, cultural studies. There has taken place a transition from the first, technological stage, which studies the production of technologies, to the second stage, namely the study of their consumption. The emergence of many new opportunities has produced a fundamental reorganization of society. A lot of new possibilities have appeared, which has reorganized society fundamentally. The leading role in the study of consumption belongs to personal values, informal rules and relations. Inadequacy of new conditions of life and obsolete laws are discussed in the article. The article discusses the issue of the inconsistency of new living conditions with outdated laws. The most well-known human-centered interdisciplinary approaches are considered: synergetics and behavioral economics. In our country, a technocratic approach to considering the social consequences of the spread of ICT has dominated and still dominates. Focusing on a person as a central subject and object of economic growth implies the need for a cultural and psychological aspect of analysis.

Keywords: new opportunities, e-consumers, digital needs, digital information environment, interdisciplinary approach, synergy, behavioral economics, socio-humanitarian approach, informational diseases of socialism, digital addiction, new digital  generation, Internet as noosphera.

Building a Model of the Impact of Modern Digital Communications on the Professional Competences of Russian Youth
BRODOVSKAYA Elena Viktorovna, DOMBROVSKAYA Anna Yurievna, PYRMA Roman Vasilievich,AZAROV Artur Aleksandrovich, SYNIAKOV Aleksey Victorovich

Abstract: The study, actualized by the digitalization of education and all branches of public life, is aimed at identifying the relationships between over-professional competences, digital competences, and the value profile of civic and sociocultural adaptation of Russian youth. The authors provide a rationale for the model of the impact of digital communications on the over-professional competences of the young generation of Russia. Modeling is carried out on the basis of a mass survey of Russian youth in an online questionnaire format and expert interviews with leading experts in the field of digitalization of education. To create a model of the impact of digital communications on the over-professional competences of young citizens of the Russian Federation, the analytical functions of the electronic software package for processing statistical data SPSS Statistic 24.0 are used: correlation analysis, calculation of average trends, modeling of the complex of relationships between over-professional competences, digital competencies, value profile, civic and sociocultural adaptation Russian youth (based on the relational approach of N.V. Khovanov). The study revealed: a high level of adaptation to the labor market of those youth representatives who choose a pragmatic strategy of professionalization, achievement-oriented values, demonstrates a harmonious type of socialization; the orientation of the Russian youth on the values of social trust, independent thinking, non-standard ways to solve professional issues, and therefore, on the willingness to diversify professional tracks.

Keywords: digitalization of education, professional competence, digital competence, value profile, civil and socio-cultural adaptation, Russian youth, mathematical modeling.

Crisis Management of the Socio-economic System in the Digital Economy
CHERESHKIN Dmitriy Semyonovich, TSIGICHKO Vitaly Nikolaevich

Abstract: Peculiarities of creating crisis management in a socio-economic system focused on strategic decision-making and going through a crisis are considered. Crisis management is implemented by assessing the risks of decisions made to exit a critical condition as well as directly by managing risks. The basis for risk assessment and decision-making is the forecast of possible changes in the situation when choosing various implemented strategies. The possibilities of improving the effectiveness of crisis management through the application of promising methods of the “digital economy” are examined.

Keywords: socio-economic systems, strategic decisions, critical situation, crisis management, risks of decisions, risk management, digital economy methods.

International Aspects of the Development of Digital Platforms in the Agricultural Sector
REVENKO Liliya Sergeevna, REVENKO Nikolay Sergeevich

Abstract: Digital transformation of the world agricultural sector has features both similar to processes in other sectors of the economy and specific ones. The building and development of digital platforms within the framework of global agricultural system is aimed at increasing the basic resources use efficiency and optimizing the processes of agricultural goods production and sale. The most common are open geospatial, information and educational platforms. Digital production, mainly IoT platforms, have become a reality at the corporate level. An important role in the digital platforms building in the agricultural sector is played by international organizations whose goal is to eliminate the “digital divide”.

Keywords: digital platforms, agricultural sector, global agricultural system.

The Use of Blockchain Technology in Creating an Information System to Carry out Operations of Shares Purchase and Sale in a Close Corporation
ERAHTINA Olga Sergeyevna, KONDRATYEVA Ksenia Sergeyevna, KUKARKIN Ilya Andreyevich, SUKHOV Alexander Olegovich

Abstract: A number of processes automated by means of various information technologies in law is increasing dramatically. The article deals with the elaboration of the information system, which automates share purchase and sale of a close corporation using Blockchain 2.0. The study gives the analysis of Blockchain application in various domains. Requirements to the information system are formalized. The system is designed with UML. The system was implemented in ASP.Net. The smart contract in Ethereum is used for negotiation data storage. In the final part of the research the limitations of the system are analyzed within the framework of the RF current law.

Key words: blockchain, smart contracts, Ethereum, share purchase and sale, pre-emption right.

The Role of Universities in Training Specialists for Smart Cities: an Inside View
VOLKOV Sergey Konstantinovich

Abstract: In the modern world, the emphasis in strategic city planning is shifting toward the concept of “smart city”, which involves the use of information and communication technologies for the effective management of different spheres of life of modern cities with a view to their sustainable development. For the effective transition to this concept, cities need new “smart” specialists who must go beyond narrowly professional thinking and be able to communicate across sectors. The main role in the training of such specialists should belong to universities and especially regional ones. This article is based on an analysis of such studies as “The Information Society in the Russian Federation. 2018” and the “Digital Literacy Index of the Russian Federation”, the country’s initial positions were determined in terms of the level of information technology use by the population and the level of digital literacy. Further, on the basis of the method of included observation, the author identified the main factors that impede the effective implementation of interdisciplinary educational programs in regional universities. The author concludes that the regional universities are not ready to train the multidisciplinary specialists necessary for the development of “smart” cities.

Key words: smart city, digital technologies, smart citizens, development strategy, university.

Analysis of Required Competences of Project Managers in the Application of Blockchain Technology
GRACHEVA Anastasia Andreevna, DAGAEV Alexander Alexandrovich

Abstract: An analysis of US labor market vacancies for project management professionals in the field of blockchain technologies has revealed a pool of necessary requirements and skills for matching such positions from the employers’ point of view. A number of competencies specific to the field under consideration have been revealed, which go beyond the framework of the international competence standard for ICB IPMA project managers. Based on the results of the analysis, practical recommendations are given on the education and advanced training of future project managers for the applications of blockchain technology in the Russian Federation.

Keywords: blockchain, information technologies, project management, competences, practical skills, training of specialists.

Modes of Copyright in the Information and Library Sphere
TSUKERBLAT Dmitry Mironovich, KRASILNIKOVA Irina Yuryevna

Abstract: The article presents a brief analysis of the main modes of using the protected works required for educational, scientific, informational and creative purposes. The strategic documents stipulating the development of free use of works for non-commercial purposes are defined. Trends in the implementation of law-making in the field of copyright protection, clarification of the regimes of exceptions and restrictions for archivists, librarians, representatives of the academic community, etc. are considered. The work shows that within the framework of the digital environment development, the question of modifying copyright regimes becomes more relevant as it affects the interests of a wide range of users. Examples of user’s conversions to information and library institutions for access to electronic resources, reproduction of documents (copying, scanning), obtaining digital copies from remote repositories are summarized.

Keywords: copyright, withdrawals and restrictions, local and remote users, information and library institutions, international obligations, human rights, digital environment.

Social Algorithms for Online Communities: an Analytical Review
SUVOROVA Alena Vladimirovna,BAKHITOVA Alina Asylanovna, Kuznetsova Anastasiya Dmitrievna, Gulyaev Pavel Romanovich

Abstract: Online communities and social media are an important system-forming part of the information society. Recently, attention has been focused on the algorithms that form such communities as well as on their property of enhancing the effects of social processes, primarily negative ones, leading to increased inequality and discrimination. The article provides an overview of social algorithms classes and studies that explore such algorithms. The authors draw the conclusion about the need for an algorithmic culture as an integral part of digital literacy. Also, the authors give the recommendations on the application of tools for interpreting machine learning algorithms in the formation of an algorithmic culture.

Keywords: social algorithms, ratings, recommender systems, machine learning.

Various Modes of Using Reference Managers Software in a System of Selective Dissemination of Information
IVANOVSKII Aleksandr Aleksandrovich, TKACHEVA Ekaterina Vasilyevna

Abstract: A reference managers software is an essential part of the system of selective dissemination of information (the SDI system). At the early stages of development, the operation of the SDI system as a whole was supported by these software tools. Currently, reference managers software remain an important element of the SDI system in the process of importing bibliographic records from external sources. Also, the possibility of introducing elements of professional social networks into the SDI system is being tested, the capabilities of which are also provided by reference managers software. The inertia of the Russian scientific community in terms of inclusion in professional social networks, noted by other researchers, makes this task non-trivial.

Keywords: selective dissemination of information, reference manager, format of bibliographic record, professional social network.